project «String transport systems»
At the moment the EU is examining a series of draft designs concerning
'traffic corridors'. However, modern high-speed roads (and MagLev Railways)
are extremely expensive and ecologically unsafe. They cost $ 10.000.000
and higher per kilometre.
Our company can propose a basically new means of high-speed transport
which is inexpensive and ecologically safe. The basically new idea of an
ideally even (velvety) line will allow speed limits of up to 500-600 kph.
The relatively low amounts of materials necessary to build the line will
halve the cost as compared to the cost of a traditional railway of the
No harmful effluents will contaminate the air and soil because IONITRAN
works on electric , power... No digging prevents the f disruption of existing
biogenesis in such fragile ecosystems as tundra, marshy and permafrost
areas... Underground and surface water migration remain unaffected…
The construction I'd like to draw your attention to is known from mechanics.
It oa very simple but unique in its own way. The construction works in
tension and i loaded up to the Ultimate strength of material and can carry
the same additional load without failing.It is a cable passed over two
blocks and weighted at the ends (Fig.1).
In the construction the strength properties of the cable are maximum
because regardles of the external load P, the cable can works all the time
at its ultimate strength without failing (increased load will lift the
weights, leaving the, stressed state of the cable unchanged). It should
be mentioned that tension is the most avoureble form of stessedstrain state
for any stretched construltion, e.g. a 100-metre cable the diameter of
a finger can lift a 10-ton weight. To bear the same weight, a 100-metrs
span bridge which works by bending must have a load-carrying beam of same
metres in height.
The cable constructon can be easily transformed into a mulisan system
with one fixed end (Fig. 2)
and then one with two fixed (anchored) eds (Fig.3).
According to calculations, it the load P s more than 100 times lower
than the tensioning force T of the cable when other conditions are equal
and cable stresses in Fig.3 will be less than 1 per cent higher than similar
cable stresses in Fig.1 or Fig.2. This difference may be neglected, so
these constructions are supposed to be identical.
The pincipal diagram of IONITRAN cable system is shown in Fig.3. The
cable sag when exposed to its own weight (the load distributed along its
length) is shown in Fig.4;
Is it a fantasy?
No, a thought revolution...
and when exposed to a concentrated load P aplied to the centre of the
span is shown in Fig.5.
Maximum cable sag parabolas when exposed
to the weight of the line structure:
a) when pl=50 kg/m; b)when p2=100 kg/m; c)when p3=150 kg/m; d)when
1-7 when T= 100; 250; 500; 1000; 5000; 10000 TxF
When exposed to its own weight the cable sag of 10 - 15 cm will take
pace under the following condition: 200-500 tons and higher tensioning
forces, 25 - 50 metre span, and the weight of the construction equals 50-150
kg per unit length (see the graphs in Fig.4). These can be easily "hidden"
("packed") into a special rail of 15-30 cm height (Fig. 6.7).
The IONITRAN line consists of with a cable rail line, support buttresses
(every 25-100m), emergency buttresses (every 100-I000 m) and anchor buttresses
(every-1-10 km). The IONTRAN building method is simple, mechanized and
automated. It has five stages:
Maximum sag of the line structure when exposed to a unit laod:
a) when p=1 TxF; b) when p=2 TxF; c) when p=3 TxF; d) when p= 10 TxF;
1-7 when T= 100; 250; 500; 1000; 5000; 10000 TxF
I have already mentioned that when subject to pay load, the IONITRAN
car. Stresses in the most loaded section of the cable road design will
increase by less thaii I per cent so that this stress impact isoegligable.
Let's compare it to a construction, which works by bending e.g. a railway
bridge span. The latter is subjected to tension and compression cyclic
stresses which differ from each other by tens and even hundreds per cent;
minimum stress is off-load; maximum stress when a train is on the bridge
span. It results in a necessity for a safety margin, fatigue phenomena
and reduces its service lite.
The effct of temperature stresses on the stressed state of the cable
line design must be taken into account. A cable should have no movement
(functional) joints along its length. If the weather changes, the cable's
properties hanging from transmission line service properties hanging from
supports and stretchiing for many kilometres with no joints. Let's take
a 25-metre span. Then temerature changes from -50grad C (in winter) up
to +50grad C (in summer) will cause folowing changes in etal string sag:
in summer it will increase by apporox. 2.5 mm. (1/10000 of the span length);
in winter, on the contrary, it will reduce by 2.5 mm. At the same ime,
the stretching stress in a cadle wil increases by 500 kgf/cm2. If cables
are stretched up to the stresses, e.g. of 8000 kgf/cm2 on installation,
their stressed states will change from 7500kgf/cm2 in summer up to 8500kgf/cm2
in winter while the IONITRAN is in use. High-speed steel, gass fibre, carbonic
plastic and other highly durable materials are suitable for cable production.
Since the rail head is placed on the construction which stretches up
to a few hundred tons, the compresive forces in ifs separate elements should
exceed the magnitude given due to temperature differences so that the construction
can lose its tansverse stability. The maximum compressive force in a railhead
is 10-15 tons, in rail body- 2-5 tons, and in a filler- 3-5 tons. So, the
maximum sum of the compressive effort in the rail eleents will be 15-25
tons, i.e. less than 10 per cent of a cable's tensile force. That is why,
even being exposed to the above-mentioned compressive force, the rail will
not lose its stability. The compressive force can become zero if the rail
head and body are prestretched on installation. If any rigid material is
used as filler, e.g. concrete, rolling movement joints must be installed
every 5-25 m.
One method for rail construction.
A rail is supposed to have three strings, each made of steel wires
with a diameter of 1-5 mm and stretched to a force of 50 tons. The railhead
must be made of steel in the form of a channel and fastened to the body.
The body must be made of sheet aluminium in order to reduce the electrical
resistance of the rail and to maximise transmitted electric power. What
is more, aluminium is resistant to corrosion, so the rail does not need
painting. The body is filled with composite polymer material and filler.
A rail weights 20-50 kg per unit length and it costs 40-60 USD per unit
length in Belarus when full-scale production is achieved.
During IONITRAN installation, anchor supports are subject to unilateral
forces of 200-500 tons (along the road). This effort will be balanced from
the opposite side when the road is ready. Support buttresses take in a
central load of around 10 tons, taking into consideration the dynamics
of motion. That is why the support buttresses at the most expensive part
of the supporting part of IONITRAN can be openwork that is not so expensive.
High supports and supports in areas with strong winds should be constructed
as stable trusses in order to guarantee cross stability and prevent any
line bending which might be caused by side wind. Motion dynamics were investigated
theoretically for the 100-800kph-speed range. The rates of car motion and
traffic flow were determined as well as the characteristic properties of
a rail. Taken together they give the dynamic deflection of a rail within
10 mm (with a 25-50 m span and car weight of 2000-3000 kg). Under certain
motion conditions, a car can slide along smoothly because the vibrations
behind the car (vibration amplitude <=10 mm), die out in 0.1-1 sec,
so the next car may move on ideally and evenly.
The IONITRAN car should be equipped with 3-6 seats for passengers (just
as in a motorcar) or 7-15 seats (like in a minibus). The carrying capacity
of the traffic unit should be 1-2 tons (freight version). Since the road
can be built ideally even and the road structure itself is a very stable
system when exposed to a mobile load, so the car can achieved the speed
of 300-500kph. Having investigated different modifications for the car
frame, we worked out the optimal one, with an aerodynamic drag coefficient
of Cx=0.075. It should be pointed out that at the moment there are no means
of transport possessing such high aerodynamic properties. These figures
are the result tests on an IONITRAN model unit (scale 1:5) in a wind tunnel
( at 250 kph). An engine of 100 kw power will guarantee a speed of 350
kph. The following three types of car drive unit are most reasonable:
- (1) installation of anchor supports;
- (2) cable-laving along the ground by the track;
- (3) cable tensioning and anchorage;
- (4) installation of intermediate supports;
- (5) installation of rail sections and line structure with the help
of a cable-dri ven platform;
The engine will receive electric power through the wheels.
IONITRAN lines can guarantee a very high carrying capacity, e.g. the
average distance between adjacent cars will be 1400 metres if the speed
is 300 kph, a seating capacity of 10 people and a passenger flow of 100
000 people every 24 hrs. This interval can be reduced to 100 metres and
the carrying capacity doubles.
The cost of the IONITRAN Line is between half a million and a million
USD. While calculating, we took into account the cost of the following
constructions: steel constructions are approx. 1000-3000 USD per kilometre;
aluminium constructions are approx. 4000-5000 USD per ton; reinforced concrete
constructions are approx. 200-500 USD per m3;
Therefore, the average passenger price for a 1000 km trip is 10-15
USD with a passenger flow of 50 000 per day.
- electric wheel drive (direct or reduction gear);
- motor-wheel and
- Shaft-fixed (fastened) pusher propeller;
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